Foreigners and Bourbon reforms in Spain: attitudes and responses to “nations” carolinas the reforms from a comparative perspective(1759–1793)
This project was created with the aim of analyzing the attitudes and responses of individuals and communities to the second non-mainland Bourbon reforms, carried out in Spain between 1759 and 1793. This will compare the impact of these reforms on four specific communities, each representative for various reasons: French, the Flemish, Italian and British-Irish. Unpublished documentary sources were used files from Spanish as the rest of Europe. In 1700 these four communities left under the new Bourbon dynasty with strong corporate privileges inherited from the Habsburg. In some cases these privileges were recognized by the Bourbons under circumstances urgent international, while other internal, as the need for renewal of the traditional elites of the kingdom after the war of Succession, the constant expansion of the military machine between 1701 and 1735, the need for new management and skilled labor, led many individuals of foreign origin peninsular alcanzasen the highest level positions in the Spain of the eighteenth. These privileges suffered a progressive deterioration after the arrival of Charles III Bourbon reforms and the second between 1759 and 1793 (working hypothesis). However, not yet know the consequences of this process on individuals and communities of foreign origin. It was a period of profound change, dominated by the reforms undertaken by Carlos III (1759-1788) and the profound impact of the French Revolution under Charles IV (1788-1808). In a context of their privileges cut, the hypothesis is that these nations were adapted to the new circumstances differently. Greater flexibility of flamingos, Italian and British-Irish could be key to better integration of individuals of these nations in Spanish society, while in the case of France this community opted from the outset by a strong institutional defense of their privileges, what they ultimately proved fatal, as evidenced by their expulsion in 1793. Within the theoretical framework, methodological and historiographical of this proposal, will consider the problem of using social categories, seemingly simple, but they need a better definition: What is a "foreign"? If the term has the advantage of being more comprehensive, to connect more with contemporary issues, The question also diluted. With the "nations" comes to privileged social organizations in institutional accurate (merchants trading cities, army, charities, schools, etc.), whereas foreigners should also consider ordinary laborers migration, for example, which are most often considered as "foreign" by the legislation carolina. If we speak of "nations", also, Is it possible to establish a "model" for each? How articulated their social networks? Also deepen consideration of the role of foreigners by the Spanish and European historiography.
In this framework will study the economic, political and socio-cultural, analyze the implications of three different lines:
Frontline: Economic Implications. Comparative analysis of the Bourbon reforms on foreign communities. With the Carlos III broke through the idea of a thorough review of international treaties, Utrecht like (1713), were clearly beneficial to the commercial interests of England, France and the Netherlands. By associating foreign businessmen in Spain as the link between these powers, Peninsula and the American colonies, also stressed the need to review its privileges. Each of the nations reacted (hypothesis) differently to these reforms, aimed at a recovery of peninsular and colonial trade which resulted in the erosion of economic and corporate privileges of foreign traders.
Second line: Policy Implications. Foreigners in court. The attack on the privileges of the Great Spanish during the reign of Felipe V left room for foreigners to climb the social ladder and eventually became the most important positions on the court. The Spanish nobility and other sectors of the opposition came to lead a review, more or less clandestine, roles as public and satires. During the first half of the eighteenth such attacks had no virulence to reach the second: from 1759, coinciding with the highest peak power, image of foreigners in the court became more vulnerable (hypothesis).
Third research: Socio-cultural implications. Foreigners in the army and in Figure. The XVIII Bourbon army gave foreigners the possibility of reaching a rapid rise in Spanish society. The monarchy also got their benefits: to attract the nobility of their former European territories had a solid foundation of trust alternative; using as a basis the regiments and companies of either nation managed to keep a flow of soldiers; last, was a way of keeping indirectly the presence and influence of the monarchy over these territories, foreign official since retained interests and contacts in their home. The military of foreign origin were not immune from the second half of the century to criticism based on their birth or descent: it appears (hypothesis) who had the least ability to reconcile identities and, therefore, assimilation process could be faster than in the case of foreigners in other professional sectors. In this century, employment of foreign technicians reached its zenith. Besides the purchase of new instruments and books abroad, to implement the ambitious reform program was needed to hire technicians. The stranger brought the tradition and know-how in many areas absent in Spain, or at least the highest quality. This is seen in the reconstruction program of the navy conducted by Ensenada. In addition to carefully follow the English technical, was hired engineers and technical English and Irish Naval, normally folded the salary of their Spanish colleagues. Foreigners were also very present in the high-skilled jobs required court: architects and painters, dressmakers, medical, Musicians and Watchmakers. Outside court, illustrated projects to promote agriculture also boosted the presence in Spain of artisans, specialists and even people from other European territories.
Director: Óscar Recio Morales, UCM